Manual The Nile and Egyptian Civilization (History of Civilization)

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The Everlasting Odyssey of Ancient Egyptian Civilization

  1. History of Egypt - Ancient Egypt Facts for Kids
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Osiris with an Atef-crown made of bronze in the Naturhistorisches Museum Vienna. Ancient Egyptians practiced a popular river sport - water jousting. Modern knowledge of this sport comes from studying ancient Egyptian tomb reliefs, thus it is limited. These depictions show that vessels held a small group of men, each one wielding a long pole. While most of the crew used theirs to maneuver the boat, a few of them would stand upright, wielding their poles to knock opponents off their respective boats.

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Two depictions of ancient Egyptian water jousting. Public Domain and PennState University. They are known to attack humans regularly, usually people washing clothes or fishing at the shore. A crocodile mummy. National Museums Liverpool. Credit: Ubisoft. By Theodoros Karasavvas. John Baines The Story of the Nile. The Nile River in Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt Online. Theodoros Karasavvas, J. When called upon to do Read More. Ancient Origins has been quoted by:. By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings.


Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. Skip to main content. Public Domain 2. References John Baines Login or Register in order to comment.

Related Articles on Ancient-Origins. Archaeologists working in the Sinai province of Egypt have unearthed the remains of a workshop that was once used to build and maintain one of the most valuable forms of ancient Egyptian transport — The ancient The Egyptian forces surrendered and the country fell to the Persians. Alexander was welcomed as a liberator and conquered Egypt without a fight.

He established the city of Alexandria and moved on to conquer Phoenicia and the rest of the Persian Empire. The glory of Egypt's past, however, was re-discovered during the 18th and 19th centuries CE and has had a profound impact on the present day's understanding of ancient history and the world. Historian Will Durant expresses a sentiment felt by many:. The effect or remembrance of what Egypt accomplished at the very dawn of history has influence in every nation and every age.

Egyptian Culture and history has long held a universal fascination for people; whether through the work of early archeologists in the 19th century CE such as Champollion who deciphered the Rosetta Stone in CE or the famous discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun by Howard Carter in CE. The ancient Egyptian belief in life as an eternal journey, created and maintained by divine magic, inspired later cultures and later religious beliefs. Much of the iconography and the beliefs of Egyptian religion found their way into the new religion of Christianity and many of their symbols are recognizable today with largely the same meaning.

It is an important testimony to the power of the Egyptian civilization that so many works of the imagination, from films to books to paintings even to religious belief, have been and continue to be inspired by its elevating and profound vision of the universe and humanity's place in it.

History of Egypt - Ancient Egypt Facts for Kids

Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication. We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Become a Member. Mark, J. Ancient Egypt. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Mark, Joshua J. Last modified September 02, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep Written by Joshua J. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.

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Remove Ads Advertisement. Prosperity led to, among other things, an increase in the brewing of beer , more leisure time for sports, and advances in medicine. About the Author Joshua J. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Related Content Filters: All. Articles The best-known ghost story from ancient Egypt is known, simply Agriculture was the foundation of the ancient Egyptian economy Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery Medicine in ancient Egypt was understood as a combination of practical In Europe, in the 19th century CE, an interesting device began Ever since European archaeologists began excavating in Egypt in Help us write more We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers.

A History of Ancient Egypt. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. William Matthew Flinders Petrie. The Religion of Ancient Egypt. Public Domain Books, Oakes, L. Hermes House, London, Bunson, M. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Gramercy Books, David, R. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt.

Oxford University Press, Nardo, D. Living in Ancient Egypt. Shaw, I. Strudwick, H.

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Metro Books, Married couples could own property jointly. Some women enjoyed huge status as high priestesses. On the other hand, as in virtually all ancient societies, public office was almost always reserved for men. The first hieroglyphic writing that has come down to us dates from c. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts. Egyptian hieroglyphic writing is composed of hundreds of symbols, which could be read in rows or columns, and in either direction though in the majority of cases, written from right to left.

Hieroglyphics were, as far as we know, exclusively used on stone monuments and in tombs. In their daily work, scribes used another kind of writing, called hieratic. This uses a cursive script that is, joined-up writing which was far quicker and easier to use than hieroglyphics. Hieratic writing was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows. Later, around BCE, and therefore towards the end of Ancient Egyptian civilization, a new form of writing, Demotic, came into widespread use. This was a phonetic, semi-alphabetical script, which began life as the transcription of everyday spoken language, but over time developed into the language of literature, high culture and religion.

Egyptian hieroglyphic literature is found on public monuments, and the walls of temples and tombs, and consists of records of the deeds of gods and men, as well as poetry. Love poetry, hymns, proverbs, spells and curses, instructional and medical texts, and myths and legends, are found in hieratic, and later demotic scripts.

The Story of Sinuhe is probably the best known work of Egyptian literature that has come down to us. Another popular tale is the Story of Wenamun, which gives an insight into Egypt in its declining phase. Much of the art which has come down to us is funerary art — art designed for the tomb. The Ancient Egyptians believed that life could continue into the afterlife, and so the dead were accompanied in their graves by everyday and luxury goods — including art objects — to help them enjoy their new life.

Ancient Egyptian art emphasised a rigid style which changed remarkably little over the millennia. This did not mean that Egyptian art was unchanging — but change took place within fairly narrow bounds. Ironically, in the declining centuries of Ancient Egyptian civilization, its art became more conservative and rigid, harking back to the glorious days of old.

The iconic Egyptian two-dimensional style is found in tombs, temples and statues. Egyptian statues were carved from stone and rock, or wood as a cheap alternative, with paint obtained from mineral ores quarried from surrounding areas. The wall paintings in tombs often depict lively scenes of everyday life, bringing this ancient civilization vividly to life. The houses of the wealthy also had richly painted walls with scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geometric designs. The Ancient Egyptians built some of the most-awe inspiring structures the world has ever seen, such as the Pyramids of Giza.


The construction of pyramids was in fact restricted to the earlier days of Egyptian civilization. Later monumental architecture can be seen most clearly in the temples and giant statues of the Valley of the Kings and Abu Simbel. The average Egyptian lived in a simple mud, wood or brick abode, with the elite having elaborate multi-room mansions with richly painted walls, decorated floors, and built around courtyards.

The Ancient Egyptians developed high levels of mathematical skills to enable them to build their pyramids and temples with remarkably simple tools. There mathematics seems to have been of a more practical nature than that of the Mesopotamians, and therefore may have influenced later civilizations less; however, this practical mathematics must have been of a very high order indeed.

Nevertheless, Egyptian medicine acquired an excellent reputation in the Ancient World. Ancient Egyptian doctors could stitch up wounds, repair broken bones and amputate infected limbs. Cuts were bandaged by raw meat, linen, and swabs soaked with honey. Opium was also used as a painkiller. Onions and garlic were used as health foods in the diet. Close proximity to the Nile meant that water-borne diseases, such as malaria, were rife. Other common ailments included physical stresses caused from a life of labour.

Life expectancy was between 30 women and 35 men , however about one third of infants never reached adulthood. The long river along which Ancient Egyptian civilization flourished was an ideal environment for the development of boat technology. As early as BCE an Egyptian ship of 75ft in length had been built. Planks of wood were originally held together by straps, with reeds or grass pushed in to seal the gaps.

Soon tree nails were used to hold planks together, with pitch and caulking to close the seams; and mortise and tenon joints had also been developed. However, despite having ships on which to sail, they were not renowned as great sailors and do not seem to have engage in shipping across the Mediterranean or Red Seas on a regular basis. The clearest evidence for the legacy of Ancient Egypt can be seen in architecture. The later Egyptian temples look very similar to early Greek temples; and it has been suggested that the Ancient Greeks got the very idea of monumental building in stone from the Egyptians.

Archaic Greek sculpture seems to be more closely related to Mesopotamian and astronomical models than Egyptian; similarly, Greek mathematics bears a closer relationship to Babylonian precedents.

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What is unmistakable is that this ancient civilization has exercised an unmatched spell upon future civilizations. The Greeks already regarded Egypt as a land of wisdom and mystery, and the Ancient Roman fascination with Egypt can be seen in the number of obelisks to be found in the city of Rome to this day some of them shipped from Egypt to the imperial capital, others copies of Egyptian models. Modern Egyptology started at that date, and has continued ever since. So what, in sum, is the place of Ancient Egypt in world history? It is surely this — here, almost at the very beginnings of recorded history, was a great civilization which produced wonderful art, architecture, engineering, literature, medicine and so on.

The wide range of highly-developed practical techniques these involved were transmitted to other peoples and later cultures; but more than this, what an inspiration it must have been for the civilizations which came after!